Baynard's Castle

   On the Thames, opposite Addle Hill (O. and M. 1677), now Nos. 12 and 13 Upper Thames Street (P.O. Directory). In Castle Baynard Ward.
   This was not the site of the original Castle, which lay further west, within what was afterwards the precinct of Blackfriars.
   Earliest mention: Stow tells us that the Castle was originally built by Baynard, a Nobleman who came over with William the Conqueror and died in the reign of William Rufus (S. 61 and 366). Possibly the Bainiard mentioned in Domesday Book as holding 3 hides of land in the Vill of St. Peter, of the Abbot of Westminster.
   The Castle seems to be alluded to by Fitz Stephen in 1170.
   Forfeited by Wm. Baynard 1111 and then given to Robert Fitz Richard, son of Gilbert de Clare, who was succeeded by Walter. Walter was succeeded by Robert Fitz Walter, and, according to Stow, the Castle remained in the same family for more than a century.
   In the "Annales Londoniensis," it is said to have been destroyed by King John, 1212 (p.9).
   In 1275 licence was granted to Robert Fitz Walter to sell Castle Baynard with the appurtenances in dykes, etc. (Cal. P.R. Ed. I. 1272-81, p. 98), and in 6 Ed. I. it was in the hands of the Archbishop of Canterbury (Ch. I. p.m.) and was granted by him to the King, 1278 (Cal. Fine Rolls, p. 95). In the same year the Friars Preachers obtained a grant of the site for the erection of their church, cloisters, etc. (Cal. Chart. Rolls. II. 211).
   After this time a second tower of Castle Baynard seems to have been erected further east, but by whom it is not easy to ascertain. In 1338 a grant was made to Wm. de Ros, of Hamelak, of a tower on the Thames by the place called "Chastel Baynard", which Edward II. caused to be built (Cal. P.R. 1338-40, p. 6). But no name is given to this tower. The site of this second Baynard's Castle is ascertained from a grant 31 H. VI. made to Edmund, Earl of Richemond of a house in London called " Baynardescastell" by Pollesquarfe, with all appurtenances, gardens and houses (Cal. P.R. H. VI. I452-61, p. 79).
   In 1461 the inn or tenement called "Baynardescastell" was granted to Cicely, duchess of York, the king's mother (ib. Ed. IV. 1461-7, p. 131).
   In 1536 the Castle was assured to the Duke of Richmond, 28 H. VIII. (L. and P. H. VIII. X. 460), and in 1540 the mansion or castle of Baynard, called Baynardes Castell, was granted to Anne of Cleeves in consideration of marriage (ib. XV. p. 52).
   In Stow's time (1603) it belonged to the Earl of Pembroke, and was supplied with water from the conduit in Blackfriars (H. MSS. Com. 7th Rep. 613, etc.).
   It was burnt down in the Fire of London and the remains converted into buildings and wharfs (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 220).
   In 1670 one moiety of the site of the "mannar" of Baynard's Castle was demised to Henry and Edmund Pollexfen. The site was described as in the parishes of St. Andrew Wardrobe and St. Bennetts Paule's wharfe, and contained in length 205 ft. and in breadth on the north side 42 ft. and on the south side 40 ft., bounded on the west by a new street leading from Thames Street to Baynard's Castle Bridge, one half of the new street being included in the demise (L.C.C. deeds, Harben bequest, 1600-1700, No.195).
   Baynard's Castle Bridge = Baynard's Castle Wharf (q.v.).
   During excavations made in 1890, oaken piles were found, said to be Roman, and to have formed part of the Arx Palatina, which terminated the southern wall at this point (Journal Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlvi. 173-81).

A Dictionary of London. . 1918.

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